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 Table of Contents  
SHORT COMMUNICATION
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 98-100

High burden to high impact: Strengthening services for malaria elimination


1 Medical Education Unit Coordinator and Member of the Institute Research Council, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth – Deemed to be University, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District, Tamil Nadu, India

Date of Submission04-Jun-2021
Date of Decision29-Jun-2021
Date of Acceptance28-Jul-2021
Date of Web Publication22-Oct-2021

Correspondence Address:
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Shri Sathya Sai Medical College and Research Institute, Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth (SBV) Deemed to be University, Thiruporur - Guduvancherry Main Road, Ammapettai, Nellikuppam, Chengalpet District - 603108, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ed.ed_10_21

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  Abstract 


Malaria is a major public health concern, and for many decades, consistent efforts have been taken to reduce the incidence of the disease as well as the associated deaths. In-fact, in the year 2019, a total of 229 million cases of the disease were reported globally. Malaria elimination has to be given utmost public health importance as the sufferings, complications of the infection, impairment in the quality of life, and the burden on the health-care delivery system are very much preventable. In the vision to accomplish malaria elimination, it is quite essential to understand the geographic conditions and the local predisposing factors before drafting the final strategy. In order to deal with this emerging situation, the World Health Organization in collaboration with the Roll Back Malaria partnership has come up with a high burden to high impact plan. It is a nation-owned and led approach developed in accordance with the set Sustainable Development Goals. In conclusion, the need of the hour is to strengthen services for elimination of malaria, and it will essentially require a multi-pronged approach involving different stakeholders, multiple sectors, and a well-co-ordinated team approach to bridge the existing lacunae and move considerable progress in the global aim to minimize sufferings and mortality attributed to a totally preventable and curable disease.

Keywords: Elimination, malaria, World Health Organization


How to cite this article:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. High burden to high impact: Strengthening services for malaria elimination. Environ Dis 2021;6:98-100

How to cite this URL:
Shrivastava SR, Shrivastava PS. High burden to high impact: Strengthening services for malaria elimination. Environ Dis [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Nov 27];6:98-100. Available from: http://www.environmentmed.org/text.asp?2021/6/3/98/329037




  Introduction Top


Malaria is a major public health concern, and for many decades, consistent efforts have been taken to reduce the incidence of the disease as well as the associated deaths.[1] In-fact, in the year 2019, a total of 229 million cases of the disease were reported globally.[2] Further, in the same year, almost 0.41 million people lost their lives due to the complications attributed to the infection. It is worth noticing that more than two-third of the reported deaths were among the children <5 years of age.[2] Moreover, the African region continues to be the most affected and accounts for almost 94% of the incident cases and the reported deaths.[2] It is quite certain that in order to accomplish malaria elimination, there will be a need of dedicated financial investment from the national governments and international welfare agencies.[1],[2] The present article has been written to explore the impact of malaria and the strategies that can be tried for accomplishing malaria elimination.


  Impact of Malaria Top


Moreover, the disease tends to affect the growth of the family, community and the nation as a whole and even cast a major burden on the health-care delivery system.[2] These rising trends clearly indicate that the time has come wherein we have to change our approach promptly to contain the disease which is very much preventable and can be cured as well.[2],[3] In-fact, it is an eye-opener for the global leaders as if we don't do something now, all the efforts, including financial investment will be of no use. Further, considering the fact that the disease predominantly affects the vulnerable population groups (viz. women and children) and those from poor socioeconomic status, it is high time to adopt an alternative approach, especially in the nations reporting higher incidence of the disease.[1],[2],[3]


  Elimination of Malarias Top


Malaria elimination has to be given utmost public health importance as the sufferings, complications of the infection, impairment in the quality of life, and the burden on the health-care delivery system are very much preventable. In the vision to accomplish malaria elimination, it is quite essential to understand the geographic conditions and the local predisposing factors before drafting the final strategy.[4] It is the need of the hour to strengthen all the aspects of malaria elimination, which essentially starts from improving the diagnostic facilities and ensuring their wide and easy accessibility.[5],[6] At the same time, there is immense need to improve the treatment services and special focus has to be given towards maintaining the availability of antimalarial drugs.[7],[8]

Further, we have to control the mosquito population as well and thus there is a need to strengthen the integrated vector management strategies targeting the larval stage, the adult stage, and also preventing mosquito bites.[9],[10] Moreover, we have to take measures for capacity building and training of health personnel to prepare them to discharge their roles effectively. Finally, we have to strengthen the research activities so that we make considerable progress in the front of detection, treatment, antimalarial resistance, and insecticides resistance.[11],[12],[13],[14]


  Roll Back Malaria Top


In order to deal with this emerging situation, the World Health Organization in collaboration with the Roll Back Malaria partnership has come up with a high burden to high impact plan.[2] It is a nation-owned and led approach developed in accordance with the set Sustainable Development Goals. This holistic approach is directed toward high-burden settings and the plan is to not only strengthen the primary health care, but also implement effective preventive and control measures to protect the vulnerable population groups.[15] The focus under the approach is to emphasize more attention toward reduction in disease-associated deaths, effective use of the available epidemiological estimates, formulation of strategies appropriate for all endemic nations, and to implement a national-level synchronized response.[15]

At this point, it is important to realize that domestic level financing has to be encouraged, other than the existing funds from the international agencies.[2] In addition, the support and involvement of all the stakeholders are crucial for the success of this new approach.[4] Nevertheless, the effectiveness of the approach will be eventually measured by a decline in the incidence of deaths by at least 90% by 2030.[2]


  Conclusion Top


The need of the hour is to strengthen services for the elimination of malaria, and it will essentially require a multi-pronged approach involving different stakeholders, multiple sectors, and a well-coordinated team approach to bridge the existing lacunae and move considerable progress in the global aim to minimize sufferings and mortality attributed to a totally preventable and curable disease.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases. Is malaria elimination within reach? Lancet Infect Dis 2017;17:461.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
World Health Organization. Malaria – Key Facts; 2021. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/malaria. [Last accessed on 2021 Jun 29].  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
McLean AR, Wai HP, Thu AM, Khant ZS, Indrasuta C, Ashley EA, et al. Malaria elimination in remote communities requires integration of malaria control activities into general health care: An observational study and interrupted time series analysis in Myanmar. BMC Med 2018;16:183.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Wangdi K, Gatton ML, Kelly GC, Banwell C, Dev V, Clements AC. Malaria elimination in India and regional implications. Lancet Infect Dis 2016;16:e214-24.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Moakofhi K, Edwards JK, Motlaleng M, Namboze J, Butt W, Obopile M, et al. Advances in malaria elimination in Botswana: A dramatic shift to parasitological diagnosis, 2008-2014. Public Health Action 2018;8:S34-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Fernando SD, Navaratne CJ, Galappaththy GN, Abeyasinghe RR, Silva N, Wickermasinghe R. The importance of accuracy in diagnosis of positive malaria cases in a country progressing towards malaria elimination. J Glob Infect Dis 2013;5:127-30.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Chaves LF, Huber JH, Rojas Salas O, Ramírez Rojas M, Romero LM, Gutiérrez Alvarado JM, et al. Malaria elimination in Costa Rica: Changes in treatment and mass drug administration. Microorganisms 2020;8:E984.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Rae JD, Nosten S, Proux S, Myint Thu A, Cho WC, Paw K, et al. The role of monitoring and evaluation to ensure functional access to community-based early diagnosis and treatment in a malaria elimination programme in Eastern Myanmar. Malar J 2019;18:50.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Asale A, Kussa D, Girma M, Mbogo C, Mutero CM. Community based integrated vector management for malaria control: Lessons from three years' experience (2016-2018) in Botor-Tolay district, southwestern Ethiopia. BMC Public Health 2019;19:1318.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Beier JC, Keating J, Githure JI, Macdonald MB, Impoinvil DE, Novak RJ. Integrated vector management for malaria control. Malar J 2008;7 Suppl 1:S4.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Orjuela LI, Morales JA, Ahumada ML, Rios JF, González JJ, Yañez J, et al. Insecticide resistance and its intensity in populations of malaria vectors in Colombia. Biomed Res Int 2018;2018:9163543.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Rabinovich RN, Drakeley C, Djimde AA, Hall BF, Hay SI, Hemingway J, et al. malERA: An updated research agenda for malaria elimination and eradication. PLoS Med 2017;14:e1002456.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Rahi M, Anvikar AR, Singh OP, Jambulingam P, Vijayachari P, Das A, et al. MERA India: Malaria elimination research alliance India. J Vector Borne Dis 2019;56:1-3.  Back to cited text no. 13
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14.
Yeung S. Malaria-update on antimalarial resistance and treatment approaches. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018;37:367-9.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
World Health Organization, RBM Partnership to End Malaria. High Burden to High Impact: A Targeted Malaria Response. Geneva: WHO Press; 2018. p. 1-8.  Back to cited text no. 15
    




 

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  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Impact of Malaria
Elimination of M...
Roll Back Malaria
Conclusion
References

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