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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-September 2017
Volume 2 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 69-96

Online since Wednesday, October 11, 2017

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EDITORIAL  

Environments and diseases: A voice from developing countries p. 69
Gary Rajah, Yuchuan Ding
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_16_17  
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Reproductive and health-related hazards of Lindane exposure in Aral sea area p. 70
Aru Balmagambetova, Ibrahim A Abdelazim, Gulmira Zhurabekova, Sapargali Rakhmanov, Yerbol Bekmukhambetov, Elnara K Ismagulova
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_10_17  
Background: The Aral Sea problem arises after improper regulation of the water from cross-borders river and heavy application of the pesticides over the cotton fields in the area. Objectives: This review article was designed to highlight the reproductive and health-related hazards of Lindane exposure in Aral Sea area. Methods of Literature Research: PubMed search was done for the articles that have been published from January 2007 to December 2015 using the keywords; Lindane and related health hazards in human. Five articles were found and critically analyzed to highlight the reproductive and health-related hazards of Lindane exposure in Aral Sea area. Results: Men of reproductive age were exposed to organochlorine pesticides (including Lindane), which have estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity, and this exposure may affect the male reproductive health. The human maternal and cord blood levels of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane were higher in preterm labor than full-term labor cases. Exposure of the human farmers to Lindane may be associated with long-term abnormalities that affect sensory nerves, and short-term abnormalities that affect liver, with reduced hepatic enzymes activity and reduced hepatocyte RNA synthesis. The Lindane level of 61 ± 268 pg/g lipid detected in the newborns in Turkey. Recently; Lindane has been restricted in most countries since 2009 under the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. The WHOs International Agency for Research on Cancer reported that the large epidemiological studies in the United States and Canada showed a 60% increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in agricultural workers, and pesticide applicators exposed to Lindane. Conclusion: Organochlorine pesticides, including Lindane have estrogenic and antiandrogenic activity, which may affect the male reproductive health. The human maternal and cord blood levels of HCH were higher in preterm labor than full-term labor cases. Exposure of the human farmers to Lindane may be associated with long-term abnormalities that affect sensory nerves, and short-term abnormalities that affect liver. Further future studies needed, with screening program of blood levels of Lindane in people living in Aral Sea area to confirm the Lindane health-related hazards, and the use of Lindane should be restricted in the Aral Sea area, if such relation proved.
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Pathophysiological status and nutritional therapy of peptic ulcer: An update p. 76
Mayank Kulshreshtha, Gunja Srivastava, Manjul Pratap Singh
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_11_17  
Peptic ulcer (PU) is the most common disease of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) which affects the stomach and duodenum. It is characterized by an imbalance between the aggressive and defensive factors. Lifestyle and eating habits play an important role in the case of PU. According to the latest World Health Organization data published in April 2011, PU disease deaths in India reached 108,392 or 1.20% of the total deaths. The age-adjusted death rate is 12.37/100,000 of population, which leads India to 5th rank in the world. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific data, herbal research, nutritional therapy, precautions, and pharmacological/nonpharmacological treatment regarding PU. The update conclusion regarding PU therapy was concluded with the help of published scientific data on Pub Med, Google Scholar, Med Know, Elsevier and other online resources. Natural remedies are found to be safe (minimum side effects) whereas, in allopathic treatment, antacids with the combination of proton pump inhibitors can better control PU. A balanced dietary plan should be advised by health care professionals or providers to patients suffering from PU. Following good habits and avoiding spicy food make our GIT healthy. Hence, a better lifestyle automatically cures the PU. Better knowledge with balanced lifestyle is an excellent treatment of PU.
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Ursolic acid: A natural preventive aesculapian for environmental hepatic ailments p. 87
Gunja Srivastava, Manjul Pratap Singh, Anurag Mishra
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_12_17  
Hepatic diseases are a major problem of worldwide proportions, and liver damage is very common since the liver has to encounter several toxic substances during their metabolism. Pollution is also one of the major causes of hepatic dysfunctioning, high level of pollutant in blood enhances the risk for abnormal liver enzyme level. Increased industrialization has prone workers to confront the several harmful chemicals in their day-to-day life that affect liver adversely; several studies have been published in the evidence of this fact; people cannot avoid their exposure to such environmental conditions but can counter with its harmful effects. Thus, to overcome this loophole, there is a demand of such agents that has the capability to fight against such toxins and pollutants. Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid, has established its identity as a very potent hepatoprotective agent in recent years. It is one of the strongest natural healers that are present in several medicinal plants. Its antioxidant effect makes it a potent antihepatotoxic agent as it modulates mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathway. UA has anticholestatic property that enhances its effectiveness somewhere equal to or in some cases better than silymarin (a well-known potent hepatoprotective agent). In recent years, it has attracted considerable attention due to its double-edged sword effect on the liver, defined in terms of prevention and cures both.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Reducing the level of pesticide residues in foods: World Health Organization p. 95
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_13_17  
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