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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2018
Volume 3 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 55-75

Online since Thursday, October 18, 2018

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COMMENTARY  

Air pollution and liver cancer p. 55
Yu Ji, Christopher Stone, Xiaokun Geng, Yuchuan Ding
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_17_18  
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Particulate air pollution: Major research methods and applications in animal models p. 57
Yanan Shang, Qinghua Sun
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_16_18  
Ambient air pollution is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of gaseous and solid particle compounds in which primary particles are emitted directly into the atmosphere, such as diesel soot, while secondary particles are created through physicochemical transformation. Particulate matter (PM), especially fine and ultrafine particles, can be inhaled and deposited in the alveolar cavities and penetrate into circulation. An association between high levels of air pollutants and human disease has been known for more than half a century and increasing evidence demonstrates a strong link between exposure on PM and the development of systemic diseases such as cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Experimental animal models have been extensively used to study the underlying mechanism caused by environmental exposure to ambient PM. Due to their availability, quality, cost, and genetically modified strains, rodent models have been widely used. Some common exposure approaches include intranasal instillation, intratracheal instillation, nose-only inhalation, whole-body inhalation, and intravenous injection have been reviewed with a brief summary of its performance, merit, limitation, and application. We hope this would provide a useful reference in advancing experimental researches about air pollution human health and disease development.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

In vitro immunomodulatory, antifungal, and antibacterial screening of Phyllanthus niruri against to human pathogenic microorganisms p. 63
VP Shilpa, K Muddukrishnaiah, B Samuel Thavamani, V Dhanapal, KN Arathi, KR Vinod, SR Sreeranjini
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_9_18  
Background: Medicinal plants present a wide range of potentially phytochemical compounds that contain many useful properties including anticancer, enzyme inhibition, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and antiallergic activities. Phyllanthus niruri capsules are extensively recommended to improve the function of the diseased liver. Its leaves root and the whole plant are used as an herbal complement. Aim: The present study was aimed to focus on the in vitro immunomodulatory activity, antifungal, antibacterial and phytochemical screening of aqueous, methanolic, and ethanolic extract of P. niruri. Materials and Methods: Immunomodulatory activities were evaluated through nitroblue tetrazolium assay. Antifungal and antibacterial activity were conducted against Candida albicans (NCIM - 3100), Aspergillus niger (NCIM - 1028), Eschericha coli (NCIM - 5346), Bacillus subtilis (NCIM - 2920), and Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM - 5345) by using disc diffusion method. Results: Medicinal plants contain polyphenolic compounds which have potent anti-cancer and immunomodulator activity. P. niruri has potential immunomodulatory activity. Aqueous, methanolic, and ethanolic extract of P. niruri did not show any significant antifungal activity and 100 mg/ml, 150 mg/ml, and 200 mg/ml. Aqueous, methanolic, and ethanolic extract showed significant antibacterial activity. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that P. niruri does not have antifungal activity but has potent immunomodulatory and antibacterial activity. This immunomodulatory and antibacterial activity of P. niruri may be due to the secondary metabolites such as alkaloid, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, and phenol compounds.
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A study of environmental exposure from cooking fuel use and role of intervention p. 69
Asim Saha, Sanjit Kumar Roy, Anupa Yadav, Ashit Kumar Mukherjee
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_13_18  
Background: Combustion of traditional biomass fuels and coal has been found to be associated with exposure to particulates and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and cause a series of adverse health effects. Characterization-quantification of such exposure achieved so far is not optimum, and establishment of a protective mechanism with proven efficacy is the urgent need. Methods: The present study was planned to characterize exposure from fuel during cooking in a village of India and understand the effect of using intervention measure. In this study, exposure to different pollutants was examined by personal monitoring in different cooking arrangements with traditional and modified oven. Results: It is observed that level of the pollutants has lessened by several folds while cooking with modified oven in comparison to unmodified oven. Such change of pollutants levels with the use of modified oven was found to be statistically significant in cases of benzene (P < 0.001), toluene (P < 0.01), and particulates (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: This study highlights the exposure from indoor air pollution during cooking and promotes use of low-cost protective mechanisms to curb resulting human health adversities. This study also calls for concerted awareness generation activity among the rural population (especially women) regarding adverse health effect of cooking fuels and protective effect of installed mechanisms.
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LETTER TO EDITOR Top

Containing the 2017 plague outbreak in Madagascar: World Health Organization p. 74
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
DOI:10.4103/ed.ed_14_18  
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